By Benedikt Eckhardt
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Extra info for Jewish Identity and Politics between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals
46–47: It was the unanimous decision of the people that Simon should officiate in the ways here laid down. Simon accepted, and consented to be high priest, general, and ethnarch of the Jews and the priests, and to exercise authority over all of them. The terminology regarding his position varies a bit: beside the office of “high priest” he is designated as ἡγούμενος, leader, on the one hand (vv. 35, 41), and ἐθνάρχης, on the other (v. 47; cf. 15:1–2). In addition, the term στρατηγός, general, commander, is used in v.
I have already mentioned how the non-biblical Qumran manuscripts continue the biblical preference for the ethnonym “Israel”. Even when Qumran texts refer to the history of the Hasmonean state, they use this name, as at 4Q161 pIsaa 8–10, 3 and 4Q169 pNah. So too, the apparent hymn to Alexander Jonathan at 4Q448 asks God to protect “Jonathan the king and the whole community of Israel your people”. Most striking are the clear parallels to usage attested in Hasmonean documents. The resolution of 140 at 1 Macc 14:27–45 refers to “the Judeans and their priests” (compare also at 14:47).
They further suggest that a similar phrase should be read in the slightly earlier divorce document, P. Mur. 19, lines 8, 21. The difficulty in deciphering the last named document prevents us from evaluating this suggestion. For P. 8, 21 see Milik in Grottes de Murabbaʾât (ed. ), 110 and 105 respectively. On the dates of the last two papyri, see David Goodblatt, “Dating Documents in Provincia Iudaea: A Note on Papyri Murabbaʾat 19 and 20”, IEJ 49 (1999): 249–59. Ada Yardeni, in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek Documentary Texts From Nahal Hever and Other Sites (ed.
Jewish Identity and Politics between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals by Benedikt Eckhardt
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